“Fish are capable of all the main kinds of learning that have been reported in mammals.“
– Dr. Maria Martina Quaggiotto, Lecturer in Ecology, University of Stirling.
Scientists have researched this question for a number of years and have concluded that the gobies are able to memorize the positions of the pools so they know exactly where to jump. This ability to make a mental map demonstrates that gobies (and likely other fish) have good memories and can determine where they are in relation to their surroundings (referred to as “spatial learning”). These abilities are considered indicators of intelligence in animals.
Zebrafish can recognize and remember other individual fish in their own group.
The wrasse, a small fish found in tropical reefs, can recognize itself in a mirror – an ability suggesting self-awareness previously thought to be confined to humans and a few other animals such as primates and dolphins.